# Python Data Types

# 1. Overview of Data Types:

Python is a **dynamically typed language**, meaning you don't need to declare the type of a variable explicitly. Here's a summary of some commonly used data types in Python:

**Integer (**Whole numbers without any decimal point, e.g.,`int`

):`5`

,`-10`

,`100`

.**Float (**Numbers with a decimal point or numbers written in exponential form, e.g.,`float`

):`3.14`

,`-0.001`

,`2.5e2`

.**String (**Ordered sequence of characters enclosed within single, double, or triple quotes, e.g.,`str`

):`"hello"`

,`'world'`

,`'''multiline string'''`

. In most cases, single quotes (`' '`

) and double quotes (`" "`

) can be used interchangeably**Boolean (**Represents truth values,`bool`

):`True`

or`False`

. Notice that the first letter is always capitalized while the rest remains lowercase.

We can get the type of a variable or an object using function `type()`

as shown below.

It's easy to mix up variable names with strings. Let's clarify the difference between the two with an example:

# 2. Data Type conversion

Converting between different data types is a common task in programming. Python provides built-in functions to convert data from one type to another. In this section, we'll explore how to convert float, string, and boolean , integers between each other.

## Converting Float, String, Boolean to Integer:

You can convert a floating-point number to an integer using the `int()`

function. This function truncates the decimal part of the float, effectively rounding towards zero. After applying this function to variables, the variable type becomes `int`

.

To convert a string to an integer, you can use the `int()`

function as well. This function parses the string and returns an integer if the string represents a valid integer literal. If the string contains non-numeric characters, it will raise a `ValueError`

. A `ValueError`

arises when a function receives an argument that doesn't match its expected input type, suggesting that the function is unable to proceed.

Booleans in Python (`True`

and `False`

) can be converted to integers where `True`

is equivalent to `1`

, and `False`

is equivalent to `0`

. You can use the `int()`

function or directly perform arithmetic operations to achieve this conversion.

Below is a summary of the content above:

- Use
`int()`

to convert float, string, and boolean values to integers. - When converting from float to int, the decimal part is truncated.
- For strings, ensure that the string represents a valid integer literal; otherwise, a
`ValueError`

will be raised. - Booleans are converted to integers as 1 (
`True`

) or 0 (`False`

).

## Converting Integer, String, Boolean to Float:

Similarly, we can convert `integers`

, `strings`

, and `boolean`

to `float`

using the function `float()`

.

- When converting from
`int`

to`float`

, the decimal part is added. - For
`strings`

, ensure that the string represents a valid integer literal; otherwise, a`ValueError`

will be raised. `Booleans`

are converted to`integers`

as 1.0 (`True`

) or 0.0 (`False`

).- After applying this function to variables, the variable type becomes
`<class 'float'>`

.

## Converting Integer, Float, Boolean to String:

Similarly, we can convert `integers`

, `float`

, and `boolean`

to `strings`

using the function `str()`

. The function basically adds two quotes around the variable value and converts the variable type to <class 'str'>.

## Converting Integer, String, Boolean to Float:

Converting data to boolean values in Python follows simple rules:

- For numerical types (floats and integers), non-zero values are
`True`

, while zero is`False`

. - For strings, empty strings are False, while non-empty strings are
`True`

. - For collections and None, empty values are False, while non-empty or
`None`

values are`True`

. - The function converts the variable type to
`<class 'float'>`